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It is significant to note H. RES. 194In the House of Representatives, U. S., July 29, 2008 RESOLUTION which states: Whereas Africans forced into slavery were brutalized, humiliated, whereas a century after the official end of slavery in America. Federal action was required during the 1960s to eliminate the dejure and defacto system of Jim Crow throughout parts of the Nation. Though its vestiges still linger to this dehumanized, and subjected to the indignity of being stripped of their names and heritage.

The United States Congress has acknowledged that Africans were denationalized throughout the colonial terror age, as I call it, otherwise known as the period of “Slavery”. Typically, enslaved Africans were given names by the slavers, and their African names were lost. See the United States Archiveshttp://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section1/trafficking-in-humans.html

10522491_578816295557985_5298780456873758680_n

Portrayal of the Moors when they entered Al Andalus (Spain) 711 A.D.

If one reviews it’s Mother Country the United Kingdom’s National Archives Glossary under the tab for Black History the term: Negro is found and it states:  A term (now considered pejorative) used to describe Black people. Africans are called ‘negroes’ in many documentsfrom the period of slavery. Seehttp://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/glossary.htm#negro.“The Word Negro was manufactured during the Atlantic Slave Trade”: The Golden Age of the Moor (Journal of African Civilizations) by Ivan Van Sertima (1935-2009) late professor of African studies at Rutgers University.

Also, see Pg 117 When Nations Gather Sultan Abdul Latif (Author) National Identities were removed and centuries of cultural traditions were erased as white slave traders changed the Names of their captives to European names and outlawed the speaking of African languages. If you scroll up to “Moor” or searchhttp://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/glossary.htm#moor  it states: Originally, this term was applied to Muslims who conquered parts of Spain in the 8th century and settled there until they were driven out in the 15th century; it also denotes people from Morocco or Mauritania in North Africa. In Britain it was often used to refer to any Black person (particularly Muslims). The word ‘Moor’ appears in Shakespearean literature. It was spelt in a variety of ways (such as ‘more’, ‘moir’, ‘moorish’ ‘moris’ ‘moryen’) and often combined with ‘black’ or ‘blak’, as in ‘black moor’, ‘blackamoor’ and ‘black more’. ‘Blackamoor’ was also used as a synonym for ‘negroe’ in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.

See “Harvard and Slavery: Seeking a Forgotten History” Moor” was a common term [used] for [people recognized as] African slaves. For example, Emmanuel Downing, a correspondent of colonial governor John Winthrop, suggested that the colony could not “thrive until we get a stock of slaves sufficient to do all our business.” “I suppose you know very well,” he advised Winthrop, “how we shall maintain 20 Moors cheaper than one English servant.”  If “the Moor” was indeed a slave, he was likely the first to be connected to Harvard. Many more followed.http://www.harvardandslavery.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Harvard-Slavery-Book-111110.pdf

Anyone familiar with the United States should be aware of the Thirteen British Colonies. What is the significance of the stripping of Names and Heritage one may ask, well let’s see what the United States Supreme Court has had to say about “Denationalization”. See Trop v. Dulles 356 U.S. 86 (1958) Decided March 31, 1958 356 U.S. 86:

The exact scope of the constitutional phrase “cruel and unusual” has not been detailed by this Court. [Footnote 29] But the Page 356 U. S. 100 basic policy reflected in these words is firmly established in the Anglo-American tradition of criminal justice. The phrase in our Constitution was taken directly from the English Declaration of Rights of 1688, [Footnote 30] and the principle it represents can be traced back to the Magna Carta. [Footnote 31] The basic concept underlying the Eighth Amendment is nothing less than the dignity of man. While the State has the power to punish, the Amendment stands to assure that this power be exercised within the limits of civilized standards. Fines, imprisonment and even execution may be imposed depending upon the enormity of the crime, but any technique outside the bounds of these traditional penalties is constitutionally suspect. This Court has had little occasion to give precise content to the Eighth Amendment, and, in an enlightened democracy such as ours, this is not surprising.

But when the Court was confronted with a punishment of 12 years in irons at hard and painful labor imposed forthe crime of falsifying public records, it did not hesitate to declare that the penalty was cruel in its excessiveness and unusual in its character. Weems v. United States,217 U. S. 349. The Court recognized in that case that the words of the Amendment are not precise, [Footnote 32] and that their Page 356 U. S. 101 scope is not static. The Amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society. We believe, as did Chief Judge Clark in the court below, [Footnote 33] that use of denationalization as a punishment is barred by the Eighth Amendment.

tumblr_n477lcFcLb1qgqkyio2_1280There may be involved no physical mistreatment, no primitive torture. There is, instead, the total destruction of the individual’s status in organized society. It is a form of punishment more primitive than torture, for it destroys for the individual the political existence that was centuries in the development. The punishment strips the citizen of his status in the national and international political community. His very existence is at the sufferance of the country in which he happens to find himself. While any one country may accord him some rights and, presumably, as long as he remained in this country, he would enjoy the limited rights of an alien, no country need do so, because he is stateless. Furthermore, his enjoyment of even the limited rights of an alien might be subject to termination Page 356 U. S. 102 at any time by reason of deportation. [Footnote 34] In short, the expatriate has lost the right to have rights. This punishment is offensive to cardinal principles for which the Constitution stands. It subjects the individual to a fate of ever-increasing fear and distress. He knows not what discriminations may be established against him, what proscriptions may be directed against him, and when and for what cause his existence in his native land may be terminated. He may be subject to banishment, a fate universally decried by civilized people. He is stateless, a condition deplored in the international community of democracies. [Footnote 35] It is no answer to suggest that all the disastrous consequences of this fate may not be brought to bear on a stateless person. The threat makes the punishment obnoxious. [Footnote 36] The civilized nations of the world are in virtual unanimity that statelessness is not to be imposed as punishment for crime.

moor arabia

An image entitled, “Habit of a Moor of Arabia,” from Thomas Jefferys’ A Collection of the Dresses of Different Nations (1757-1772)

It is true that several countries prescribe expatriation in the event that their nationals engage in conduct in derogation of native allegiance. [Footnote 37] Even statutes of this sort are generally applicable primarily Page 356 U. S. 103 to naturalized citizens. But use of denationalization as punishment for crime is an entirely different matter. The United Nations’ survey of the nationality laws of 84 nations of the world reveals that only two countries, the Philippines and Turkey, impose denationalization as a penalty for desertion. [Footnote 38] In this country, the Eighth Amendment forbids this to be done.

Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.February 1, 1992 by Chancellor Williams (Author) Chapter 8 : The Resurrection and the life: Case Studies by States

“Now, again, just who were the Moors? The answer is very easy. The original Moors, like the original Egyptians, were Black Africans. As amalgamation became more and more widespread, only Berbers, Arabs and Coloureds in the Moroccan territories were called Moors while the darkest and black-skinned Africans were called “Black-a-Moors.” Eventually, “black” was dropped from “Blackamoor.” In North Africa, and Morocco in particular, all Muslim Arabs, Mixed breeds and Berbers are readily regarded as Moors. The African Blacks, having had even this name taken from them, MUST CONTEND FOR RECOGNITION AS MOORS”(Pg.207)

Page 24: “The term Black was given a rebirth by the black youth revolt. As reborn it does not refer to a particular color of any particular person, but to the attitude of pride and devotion to the race whose homeland from times immemorial was called The Land of the Blacks. Almost overnight our youngsters made Black Co Equal with White in respectability and challenged the anti Black Negroes to decide on which side they stood. This was no problem for many who are light or even near white in complexion for they themselves were among the first to proclaim with pride “Call me Black”

Here chancellor Williams states that Black was a Rebirth indicating a possible understanding on his part that the term Black was a Badge of Slavery, not necessarily to the degree as described in this article with respect to the Thirteenth Amendment prohibition against Badges and Incidents of Slavery. The fact is Black was used because it was inherited from those generations who were initially stripped of their names and heritages and told they were Black and listed as Black within transactional documents. The Badge has caused the descendants of Moors to stitch itself upon all their ancestral origins under the guise of phrases such as the Land of the Blacks for Kemet, where as Morocco does not mean Blackorrocco but Land of God, and Mauretania which Kemet existed in was known as Land of the Moors. However, chancellors words about contending for recognition as Moors have not gone in vain.

When we get to the legal and political system you will find that the term “Negro” and “Black” is not given the same status as the term “Moor”. The term Moor is on a footing with other Nationalities and National Origins in the law of European Governments or Governments founded by Europeans. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney as a Supreme Court Justice and well cognizant of Moorish treaties stated in Scott v. Sandford 60 U.S. 393: They [Negroes] had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race either in social or political relations, and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect, and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold, and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic whenever a profit could be made by it. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race. It was regarded as an axiom in morals as well as in politics which no one thought of disputing or supposed to be open to dispute, and men in every grade and position in society daily and habitually acted upon it in their private pursuits, as well as in matters of public concern, without doubting for a moment the correctness of this opinion.

And in no nation was this opinion more firmly fixed or more

Page 60 U. S. 408

uniformly acted upon than by the English Government and English people. They not only seized them on the coast of Africa and sold them or held them in slavery for their own use, but they took them as ordinary articles of merchandise to every country where they could make a profit on them, and were far more extensively engaged in this commerce than any other nation in the world.

The opinion thus entertained and acted upon in England was naturally impressed upon the colonies they founded on this side of the Atlantic. And, accordingly, a negro of the African race was regarded by them as an article of property, and held, and bought and sold as such, in every one of the thirteen colonies which united in the Declaration of Independence and afterwards formed the Constitution of the United States. The slaves were more or less numerous in the different colonies as slave labor was found more or less profitable. But no one seems to have doubted the correctness of the prevailing opinion of the time.https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/60/393/case.html

The Irish were treated harshly as well, but they were not stripped, and that is why they know they are Irish today. Even today in Spain there is now a group of Moorish descendants referred to as Afro-Spanish whereas these people are Moors by birth rite, their Moorish Ancestors were shipped by Spaniards and Portuguese traffickers as Negros and Ladinos to the Spanish American colonies, where they were ultimately stripped of their names and heritage, many of the descendants of those Moors who were stripped have returned to Al Andalus now Spain and Portugal from the Spanish American colonies (Angola, Brazil, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea) and are now referred to as Afro Spaniards which is defined as Spanish nationals of black-African descent, interestingly enough Afro American were the pre-cursor to “African American” (a racial synonym for Black and Negroe in the U.S.A.) which is defined as Black and Negroe. Most are not aware that the term “Moor” is older than the term African and that the term African is a term that does originate with the Ancient Romans via the province of Africa they established as a result of the Punic Wars in what we know to day as North Africa, the continent was known as Mauretania and Libya prior to the end of the Punic Wars. Ethnolinguistic wise Black, Negroe, Colored, Ladino language wise are Exonyms or xenonyms (from the Greek: ἔξω, éxō, “out” or ξένος-, xénos, “foreign” andὄνομα, ónoma, “name”) is the name given to an ethnic group or to a geographical entity by another ethnic group, often derogatory or offensive. Exonyms and endonyms can be names of places (toponym), ethnic groups (ethnonym), languages (glossonym), or individuals (personal name)

The reason the Slave Traders listed Moors as Negroes, Blacks, Colored’s ladino’s etc, was specifically for purposes of circumventing treaties that recognized Moors on the footing with all other recognized Nation which resulted in recognizing them as Humans and party to the Families of Nations. We Moors have been fighting against the Negro and Black Badges of Slavery for generations.  For Example:  Africans who identified themselves as Moors in 1790 Petitioned the South Carolina Legislatures as Subjects of the Emperor of Morocco; and residents in South Carolina, praying that in case they should Commit Any Fault amenable to be brought to Justice, that they as Subjects to a Prince in Alliance with the United States of America, may be tried under the same Laws as the Citizens of this State would be liable to be tried, and not under the Negro Act, which was received and read. Some years past had the misfortune while fighting in the defense of their Country, to be captured with their wives and made prisoners of War by one of the Kings of Africa.

That a certain Captain Clark had them delivered to him on a promise that they should be redeemed by the Emperor of Morocco’s Ambassador then residing in England, in order to have them returned to their own Country: Instead of which he brought them to this State, and sold them for slaves. Since that period they have by the greatest industry been enabled to purchase their freedom from their respective Masters: And now prayeth your Honorable House, That as free born subjects of a Prince now in Alliance with these United States; that they may not be considered as subject to a Law of this State (now in force) called the negro law: but if they should unfortunately be guilty of any crime or misdemeanor against the Laws of the Land, that they may have a just trial by a Lawful Jury. And your Petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray.] See Art. XXI of 8 Stat 100-105 and 8 Stat 484-487:

“If a Citizen of the United States should kill or wound a Moor, or on the contrary if a Moor shall kill or wound a Citizen of the United States, the Law of the Country shall take place and Equal Justice shall be rendered. The aforementioned United States Statutes at Large are where the treaties with Morocco were ratified into U.S. Law and are on the same footing with any other federal legislation. The Moors were to be treated on a footing with other nations. Citing from 2 Wood. 425. Moxon et al. v. The Fanny Case, No. 9,895 District Court, D. Pennsylvania 1793, U.S. Dist. Lexis 1; 17 F. Cas. 942; 2 Pet. Adm. 309 1793.  

US-Prison-Industrial-ComplexConvention of Madrid, concludes July 8, 1880 established that residency in foreign countries does not affect the Nationality of Moorish Subjects. See Citizenship of The United States, Expatriation And Protection Abroad, (December 20th, 1906 Report Referred To Committee On Foreign Affairs, And Ordered To Be Printed By The Secretary Of State) By The United States Dept. Of State, James Brown Scott, David Jayne Hill,  Gaillard Hunt, Page 460 Says: “there are however numerous treaties  and conventions between the various Christian countries and the Moorish empire , by means of which citizenship in this country is defined; but as I understand from the above acknowledged instructions it is not the desire of the department to call for a report on such lines… Convention of Madrid, concludes July 8, 1880 established that residency in foreign countries does not affect the Nationality of Moorish Subjects.

Citing from a Slander case prosecuted by Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States in, William Dungey v. Joseph Spencer. “My client is not a Negro, though it is a crime to be a Negro–no crime to be born with a black skin. But my client is not a Negro. His skin may not be as white as ours, but I say he is not a Negro, though he may be a Moore.” “Mr. Lincoln,” interrupted Judge Davis, scarcely able to restrain a smile, “you mean a Moor, not Moore.” “Well, your Honor, Moor, not C.H. Moore,” replied Mr. Lincoln, with a sweep of his long arm toward the table where Moore and I sat. “I say my client may be a Moor, but he is not a Negro.”

See Ancient and Modern Britons by David Machritchie: But, though these Flemish colonist, and others of “his own peaceful people,” supplanted the intractable “Moors” in certain districts of that northern “Moravia,” yet Mr. Skene seems to think that considerable numbers of the earlier inhabitants continued to inhabit their fatherland, even after the ownership of it had been given to others…All through the twelfth century, indeed, these half suppressed races appear to have been in a state of ferment: now acting as auxiliaries in the armies of their overlords; and again asserting their rights as distinct nationalities. Page 179. “Silius Italicus, and early writer around the beginning of the Christian era, describes the Maures as “Nigra” or black…Procopius, a 6th century Byzantine historian, says the Moors (Maurusioi) were a people composed of a number of “black-skinned” tribes who had gained domination over all of North Africa after the period of the Vandals’ ascendency in Africa.” From Golden Age of the Moor.

Song of Roland

The Battle of Roncevaux (778 AD) between Roland (left) and Marsile (right) in the Song of Roland, the oldest French book held in the French National Library

The thirty-six Africans had been among five or six hundred purchased by a Portuguese slave trader in April 1839. They were shipped to Havana, Cuba, then a Spanish colony.Although slavery was legal in many countries, the international slave trade had been banned by laws and treaties in nations such as Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States. Nevertheless, a prosperous slave trade continued, and few traders were caught. The Africans were landed near Havana and sold openly in the slave market. Fifty-two members of the Mendi tribe, from present-day Nigeria, who survived the horrors of the Middle Passage were sold to Jos‚ Ruiz and Pedro Montez, two Cubans who planned to sell them to a Cuban sugar plantation. The Mendians were given Spanish names and designated as “black ladinos,” indicating that they had lived in the country long enough to know the language and customs. Utilizing the deception that the Mendians had been long-term slaves in Cuba, Ruiz and Montez placed them on board the schooner Amistad, and set sail for a port down the Cuban coast on June 28, 1839. .http://www.npg.si.edu/col/amistad/index.htm

See esclavo ladino in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española: “Slave who spent over a year in slavery”. The slaves in the schooner La Amistad were Mendes captured in Africa but were described as Ladinos[5] by their Cuban buyers to avoid the ban on international slave trade. Black Ladinos (Spanish: negros ladinos) were Hispanicized black Ladinos, exiled to Spanish America after having spent time in Castile. See esclavo ladino in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española: “Slave who spent over a year in slavery”. Black ladinos, a historical ethnic community in Medieval Spain  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladino. Ladino, is also known as Judaeo-Spanish, a language primarily spoken among Sephardic Jews, and the written form of Judeo-Spanish used in Sephardic religious texts, secular literature, and song. Prior to the arrival of Columbus to the Americas, there were Black or Moorish Africans (there has been a very long history of moors in Europe) in the Iberian Peninsula, brought either through the Arab slave trade, the Castilian and Portuguese or as free men assimilated into the population. After some time in the Spanish society, these slaves become Christianized and learnt Spanish. There were 50,000 Black Ladinos in Spain in the 15th century. See Nicomedes Santa Cruz. Obras Completas II. Investigación (1958-1991), page 306, Nicomedes Santa Cruz, LibrosEnRed, 2004. After the initial stages of the Spanish colonization of the Americas showed that Amerindians were not suitable for the labour that the conquerors required (mainly due to the Eurasian illnesses unknown in the Americas), Nicolás de Ovando decided to bring slaves from Spain. Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean, Volume 2: Social Dynamics and Cultural Transformations: Eastern South America and the Caribbean, Norman E. Whitten, Jr., Arlene Torres, page 45. Between 1502 and 1518, Castile exiled hundreds of black slaves, primarily to work as miners. Opponents of their enslavement cited their Christian faith and their repeated attempts of escape to the mountains or to join the Native Americans in revolt. Proponents declared that the rapid diminution of the Native American population required a consistent supply of reliable low-cost workers. Free Spaniards were reluctant to do manual labor or to remain settled (especially after the discovery of gold on the mainland), and only slave labor assured the economic viability of the colonies.  They were referred to as negros ladinos (“cultivated” or “Latinized Blacks”), as opposed to negros bozales (“muzzled Blacks”, i.e. those captured in Africa and tied up to prevent them from escaping). The Ladinos’ skills granted them a higher price than those of bozales. See Génesis y desarrollo de la esclavitud en Colombia: siglos XVI y XVII, page 132, María Cristina Navarrete, Universidad del Valle, 2005. Black Ladinos born in the Americas were negros criollos (“Creole Blacks”, cf. Creoles of color).

The Africans, by their African names, moved in the circuit court, in April, 1840 in United States v. The Amistad – 40 U.S. 518 (1841): “Although public documents of the government accompanying property found on board of the private ships of a foreign nation are to be deemed prima facie evidence of the facts which they state, yet they are always open to be impugned for fraud, and, whether that fraud be in the original obtaining of those documents or in the subsequentfraudulent and illegal use of them, where once it is satisfactorily established, it overthrows all their sanctity and destroys them as proof. Fraud will vitiate any, even the most solemn, transactions, and any asserted title founded upon it is utterly void.” Nothing is more clear in the laws of nations as an established rule to regulate their rights and duties and intercourse than the doctrine that the ship’s papers are prima facie evidence of what they state, and that, if they are shown to be fraudulent, they are not to be held proof of any valid title whatever.

This rule is applied in prize cases, and is just as applicable to the transactions of civil intercourse between nations in times of peace. In the solemn treaties between nations, it never can be presumed that either state intends to provide the means of perpetrating or protecting frauds, but all the provisions are to be construed as intended to be applied to bona fide transactions. 40 U.S. 521. On the 29th of August 1839, Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montez, of Cuba, filed claims to all the negroes on board of the Amistad, except Antonio, as their slaves. A part of the merchandise on board the vessel was also claimed by them. They alleged, that the negroes had risen on the master of the schooner, and had murdered him; and that afterwards they, Ruiz and Montez, had brought her into the United States. They claimed that the negroes and merchandise ought to be restored to them under the treaty with Spain, and denied salvage to Lieutenant Gedney and to all other persons claiming salvage. Afterwards, Ruiz and Montez each filed in the district court a separate libel stating more at large the circumstances of the voyage of the Amistad, the murder of the master by the negroes, and that the negroes afterwards compelled them to steer the vessel towards Africa, but that they contrived to bring her to the coast of the United States, where she was captured by the United States brig Washington; Ruiz, in his libel, stated the negroes belonging to him to have been forty-nine in number, “named and known at Havana, as follows: Antonio, Simon, Jose, Pedro, Martin, Manuel, Andreo, Edwards, Celedonia, Burtolono, Ramia, Augustin, Evaristo, Casamero, Merchoi, Gabriel, Santorin, Escolastico, Rascual, Estanislao, Desidero, Nicholas, Estevan, Thomas, Cosme, Luis, Bartolo, Julian, Federico, Salustiano,  40 U.S. 524  Ladislao, Celestino, Epifanio, Eduardo, Benancico, Felepe, Francisco, Hipoleto, Berreto, Isidoro, Vecente, Deconisco, Apolonio, Esequies, Leon, Julio, Hipoleto and Zenon, of whom several have died. Their present names, Ruiz stated, he had been informed, were,

“Cinque, Burnah 1st, Carpree, Dammah, Fourrie 1st, Shumah, Conomah, Choolay, Burnah 2d, Baah, Cabbah, Poomah, Kimbo, Peea, Bang-ye-ah, Saah, Carlee, Parale, Morrah, Yahome, Narquor, Quarto, Sesse, Con, Fourrie 2d, Kennah, Lammane, Fajanah, Faah, Yahboy, Faquannah, Berrie, Fawnu, Chockammaw and Gabbow.” The libel of Pedro Montez stated that the names of three negroes on board the Amistad belonging to him were Francisco, Juan, and Josepha; the Spanish name of the fourth was not mentioned, and the four were now called Teme, Mahgra, Kene, and Carria. All these were stated to be slaves, and the property of the claimants, purchased by them at Havana, where slavery was tolerated and allowed by law, and they and the merchandise on board the vessel, the claimants alleged, by the laws and usages of nations, and of the United States of America, and, according to the treatiesbetween Spain and the United States, ought to be restored to the claimants, without diminution, and entire.

Wild Men and Moors

“Wild Men and Moors,” a tapestry (1350-1400 AD) depicting the ruling Moorish Strasbourgois of France/Germany (Boston Museum of Fine Arts) -

Today Law Enforcement in the United States are trained to automatically list dark skin people as Black on their security instruments incidental to slavery, as this was the practice and custom of the Slave Patrols, Slave Traders, Slave Traffickers and Slave Smugglers. See Miller v. Prince George’s County, Maryland, No. 05-2250, 2007 U.S. App. Lexis 1347 (4th Cir.).[N/R] QQ 9.Arrest warrant was not supported by probable cause when an officer’s affidavit allegedly included deliberate misrepresentations. The warrant issued listed the suspect as a white male, even though the arrestee was an African-American. Even if the false statements were removed, the affidavit would not support probable cause for an arrest. The officer who obtained the warrant was not entitled to qualified immunity. Senator Harlan included a among the [Thirteenth] Amendment’s purposes abolition of several incidents of slavery that would have lingering effects upon the freedman, including denial of legal status in court proceedings, and freedom speech. See tenbBroek, supra note 159, at 177-78 (citing CONG. GLOBE, 38TH Cong., 1st Sess. 322 (1866), quoted in Douglas G. Smith. A Lockean Analysis of Section One of the Fourteenth Amendment, 25 HARV. J.L. & PUB POL;Y 1095, 1101 (2002) (discussing the Thirteenth Amendment as the precursor to the Fourteenth).Consistent with his opinion in Cruishank, Jusitce Bradley  articulated a strong view of the effect of Section 1 establishing universal civil and political freedom. The Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3, 20 (1883).

The Thirteenth Amendment promised the freed slaves “universal civil and political freedom.”  The Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3, 20 (1883). Badges of Slavery have been prohibited by the Thirteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. The phrase badge of slavery: acquired a more specific range of meanings in American discourse referred to the skin color of African Americans. In some states and some courts, dark skin was presumptively a “mark or sign” of slave status. See MORRIS, supra note 49, at 21. State v. Whitaker, 3 Del. 549, 550 (1840); see also State v. Rash, 6 Del. 271, 274 (Del. Ct. Gen. Sess. 1867) (“As slavery was exclusively confined to the black or colored race, color became the badge or sign of servitude . . . .”). As a consequence, some legal restrictions that applied to slaves, like the bar on testimony in any case involving a white person, also applied to free blacks because they also wore the badge of slavery. Gerrit Smith, Editorial, THE LIBERATOR, March 7, 1835, at 39; see also, e.g., VT. CHRONICLE (Bellow Falls), July 18, 1834, at 116 (reprinting speech by Dr. Lyman Beecher which stated in part that “[h]ad Africans been the oppressors, and Americans the slaves, white complexion and straight hair would have been the badges of servitude and the occasions of prejudice; but since prejudice is the result of condition and character, it is invincible till the causes which created it are removed”).

Many people think the term Moor has its origin with the Romans and Greeks. This opinion is usually from persons who are not Moors, do not claim to be Moors, or are simply anti Moors. I personally think it’s an attack on the right to self identification and freedom of expression to be truthful. There are many persons perceived to be Black who as a result of Slavery are ashamed of their Moorish heritage because of its relationship to Islam and even Africa per say. I do not agree that the term Moor originates with the Romans and Greeks because there is a reference that it’s oldest existing trace is to the Phoenicians who are in fact the people referred to as the Ancient Moors i.e. Pre Islamic Moors.  The Phoenicians are known as the Kanni to the Ancient Kemtians i.e. Egyptians. The term Egypt itself has its origins in the Greek language. Exercepted from a piece by James E. Brunson and Runako Rashidi:Although scholars generally agree that the word Moor is derived from Mauri, there are profound disagreements on what the word originally meant and how it was applied. Hitti contends that the term Moor has a geographic designation meaning Western. Hitti, the author of the comprehensive History of the Arabs write that: The Romans called Western Africa Mauretania and its inhabitants Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning western), whence the Spanish Moro, and the English Moor.

TP

A copy of Tabula Peutingeriana, the oldest known Roman map of northwest Africa (300 AD)

The above meaning of Moor is interesting since in Arabic, Morocco is referred to as the Al Magrib meaning the West. The Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah (Arabic: المملكة المغربية‎, meaning “The Western Kingdom”) and Al-Maghrib (Arabic: المغرب‎, meaning “The West”) are commonly used as alternate names. For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá (المغرب الأقصى, meaning “The Farthest West”) to distinguish it from neighboring historical regions calledal-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ (المغرب الأوسط, meaning “The Middle West”) and al-Maghrib al-Adná (المغرب الأدنى, meaning “The Nearest West”). The English name “Morocco” originates from, respectively, the Spanish and Portuguese names “Marruecos” and “Marrocos”. These, in turn, derived from “Marrakesh”, the medieval Latin name for the former Almoravid and Almohad capital. “Marrakesh” remains the name for Morocco in Persian, as it was, until the latter 20th century, in Middle Eastern Arabic.

In Turkish, Morocco is known as “Fas”, a name derived from its ancient capital Fes. The word “Marrakesh” is made of the Imazighen word-combination Mur N’Akush meaning “Land of God”.Mauretania was an independent tribal Berber kingdom from about the 3rd century BC. It became a client of the Roman empire in 33 BC, and a full province after the death of Ptolemy of Mauretania in AD 40. In the 1st century Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana along the line of the Mulucha (Muluya) River, about 60 km west of modern Oran:  Mauretania Tingitana, named after its capital Tingis (now Tangier); it corresponded to northern Morocco including the Spanish enclaves and Mauretania Caesariensis, comprising western and central Algeria as far as Kabylie. During the crisis of the 3rd century, parts of Mauretania were re-conquered by Berber tribes. Direct Roman rule became confined to a few coastal cities (such as Septum (Ceuta) in Mauretania Tingitana and Cherchell in Mauretania Caesariensis) by the late 3rd century. See Page 39 of “The Hidden History of Islamic Origins of Freemasonry” by HRH Prince Michael of Albany it states: North Africathen called Mauretania, and Spain both had been provinces of the Roman Empire. Roman Catholic writers of the 5th-9th centuries AD used “Mauretania” synomymously with all of Africa, not any one particular region.

Many people are not aware that the terms Mauretania and Libya are actually older than the terms Africa and Egypt. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), during the time of the Roman empire, the term Afrika became accepted as a replacement for the word “Libya” which meant “the land of the Lebu or Lubins in Genesis.” http://www.trinicenter.com/kwame/2007/0901.htm  Phoenician is older than Greek. They are the Canaanites. In fact the oldest cities in Ancient Greece were built by the Phoenicians. Many writers on the subject fail to recognize that term “Black” was attached to moors by the British/English pirates turn privateers, and slave traffickers who are not an ancient people and in fact actually have to look to Islamic sources when it comes to certain points in history because they were not recording history before the Moors. Many of the oldest records of ancient civilizations like Greece and Egypt are mostly in Ancient Arabic translated from their languages of origin by the Moors.

Then the use of black is a direct result of white supremacist education which played a role in stripping moors of their names and heritage it was them who listed the terms: Negro and Blackman as a description of the Moors in dictionaries as they were listing Negroes and blacks as property on deeds. The British/English branded the Moors as “Black”, the Portuguese and Spanish branded the Moors as Negroes, The Dutch branded the Moors as Negars, Ladinos the only term similar in speech in all those European languages is Moor, Moros, Maure, Mauri, Mor, etc. There are those that want to say Moor originates with the Romans and Greeks not the actual people but Dr. Ben (Antonio Yosef Ben-Jochannan) stated he examined records in the Spanish churches and found in the early 1500’s Africans were calling themselves Moors:

Zeno of Verona

St. Zeno of Verona (unconfirmed date, but likely in Renaissance era), courtesy of David Monniaux

Remember there came a time in 1506, after we lost power in Spain the Africans ruled Spain from 711, we were calling ourselves Moors, M a u r e s then Moors, from 711 to 1485, 774 years when we built and brought into Europe the Yoruba System building the university of Salamanca in Spain a copy of the University of Jenne from ancient Ghana which was equally a copy of the university of Sankore in Timbuc which the French later called Timbuctoo. See and Listen for yourself here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nST4OKMR-Hg

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to enslave Moorish Africans and they were the first to call them Negroes i.e. When the Spanish became involved in the slave trade, they also used the word “Negro” meaning “Black” in English to describe Africans that were targeted for Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking. See Anthony T. Browder in From ‘The Browder File: 22 Essays on the African-American Experience’ (2000), Its origin is vile and infamous, that It began in indignity, that it began in immorality and the consciousness and dignity of man must now rise and dispense with it forever. See (p.37) of Richard B. Moore’s seminal opus titled ‘The Name “Negro”: Its Origin and Evil Use’ (1972). By this name “Negroes”, African slaves, “…were thereby branded as bestial and savage, innately inferior, fit by nature for slavery and indeed [in their religion] ordained by God himself for perpetual slavery.” (p.40). In Euro-colonial countries, the word “Negro” [meaning “Black”] had a specific meaning beyond the simple connotation of colour or skin. The expression, “He is a Negro,” was equivalent to saying, “He is a slave” and to Moorish Americans and or American Moors the same goes for the its English counterpart “Black”. Since almost all the slaves in certain countries and epochs were “Negroes”, “Negro” came to be synonymous with slave. (p.46). As deceased scholar/historian, Dr. John Henrik Clarke once admonished, “…dogs and slaves were named by their masters and that only free men named themselves.” As the African adage suggests, “It’s not what you call me but what I answer to.”

EUROPEAN SOURCES DEFINING THE TERM MOOR

The earliest account in Arabic of the West African peoples was written in 738 by Wahb ibn Munabbeh. According to this eighth century Arab chronicler, among the descendants of the sons of Kush, who was the son of Ham and the grandson of Noah, were the peoples of the Sudan, who were the Qaran ( perhaps the Goran, who live east of Lake Chad, the Zaghawa (who still dwell in western Dafur and Wadai), the Habesha (Abyssinians), the Qibt (the Copts), and the Barbar (Berbers). We learn from Soninke traditions that the Ghana Empire had its beginnings about the year 300 of the Christian era. The first ruling dynasty seems to have been Berber invaders from North Africa. These interlopers remained in power until about 700 A.C. when the leader of the Sisse clan of the Soninkes organized a revolution which ousted the Berbers……..

There is frequent mention of the Garamantes of the Fezzan, in Classical literature of Greece and Rome. The Garamantes were recognized as a Black tribe. They were known to the Greeks and Romans as dark skinned. In Ptolemy (I.8.5.,p.31) a Garamante slave was described as having a body the color of pitch or wholly black. Graves (1980) and Leo Frobenius linked the Garamante to the ancient empire of Ghana (c.300 BC to A.D. 1100). Graves (1980) claims that the term Garamante is the Greek plural for Garama or Garamas. He said that the present Jarama or Jarma are the descendants of the Garamante; and that the Jarama live near the Niger river.

A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”.

See Pages 16-32 of the Book: The First Americans Were Africans: Documented Evidence By David Imhotep Ph. D., David Imhotep: Page 16 The first documented African slaves (brought by the Spanish) did not arrive in the Americans until 1520 A.D. Page 17: Interestingly, in 1607 Captain John Smith reported he was captured by Black Indians. Just seventy-four years later an interesting remark was made about the color of the Indians of New England. (For the reader’s reference, William Pen founded the Province of Pennsylvania in North America for the British.) Penn made an interesting remark that has been recorded in history: ” In 1681, the Indians of New England, or ‘Moors as they were styled [called] by the [English] settlers, were pronounced by William Penn to be ‘as Black as Gypsies.’ *See Mr. Eggleston’s article in The Century Magazine of May 1883.

The Following Dictionaries are evidence of the Denationalization of the Moors. The Following Dictionaries are evidence that Moors were stripped of their Names and Heritage and they were given the Badges of Slavery “Negro and Black”.

Moor, mor….a negro, a black-a-moor. A complete dictionary of the English language By Thomas Sheridan

Blackamoor n. Negro, black, black man, moor, blackey. See Page 50 of A Dictionary of English Synonyms and Synonymous: Or Parallel Expressions … By Richard Soule

Moor, 2. Mauritanian 3. Blackamoor, negro, colored person. See Page77 A Dictionary of English Synonymes and Synonymous: Or Parallel Expressions … By Richard Soule

Blackamoor, n. habashi; zangi. 3. to wash a blackamoor white. A New English-Hindustani Dictionary: With Illustrations from English  By S. W. Fallon, John Drew Bate.

 Blackamoor, black-skinned Moor, or any black-skinned person. The word perhaps distinguished the darker of the mixed races of the Moors, but was more often probably a synonym for Negro. It seems to have evolved from ‘black Moor,’ which was descriptive and apparently not pejorative. The OED dates the first use of ‘b.’ to 1581. Blacks were well-known by then and may had been in London. LLL 5.2. 157 (pl. O: several are part of the pageant probably musicians in costume. Tro. 1.1.77: this use has a negative connotation. The Shakespeare Name Dictionary By J. Madison Davis, Daniel A. Frankforter

black a-mur n. a negro: A General Pronouncing and Explanatory Dictionary of the English Language: To … By George Fulton, G. Knight Page 40

 Black’moor or Black/amoor, s. a negro, a black: Entick’s New Spelling Dictionary, Teaching to Write and Pronounce the … By John Entick, Lindley Murray

Negroe: A black-a-moor: figuratively used for a slave. I’ll be no man’s negro; I will be no man’s slave. Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue 1811: A Dictionary of British Slang …By ed. Campbell McCutcheon

 Negro (ne-gro), n., a blackamoor, black slave. A School Dictionary; Or, Entick’s English Dictionary,: Abridged and Adapted By John Entick, Sir Richard Phillips, Thomas Browne (LL.D.)

– “Maurus” was synonymous with “Moor,” “negro,” and “Aethiops” in John Etick’s A new English-Latin dictionary (1783)

– In A new Latin-English dictionary by William Young (1810), “Maurus” is a “black Moor”

– According to the Ainsworth’s Latin Dictionary, Morell’s abridgment by Alexander Jamieson, Robert Ainsworth (1828), “Maurus” means “black Moor”

“Moor” is defined as “negro” or “black-a-moor” in A Dictionary of the English Language (1768) by Samuel Johnson

– The Encyclopaedia Londinensis (1817) by John Wilkes defines “moor” as follows: “[maurus, Lat. μαυρο, Gr., black.] a negro; a blackamoor.”

– John Olgilvie’s The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (1882) states: a Moor was a “black man or negro”

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  • The Many Definitions and History of the Word " Negro"

    Elizabeth Catlett
    Negro Woman, 1952


    The word Negro was used in the English-speaking world to refer to a person of black ancestry or appearance, whether of African descent or not, prior to the shift in the lexicon of American and worldwide classification of race and ethnicity in the late 1960s. The word "negro" means "black" in Spanish and Portuguese, from the Latin niger ("black"). The usage was accepted as normal, even by people classified as Negros, until the Civil Rights movement.


     

    During the American Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, some African American leaders in the United States objected to the word, preferring Black because they associated the word Negro with the long history of slavery, segregation, and discrimination that treated African Americans as second class citizens, or worse. During the 1960s Negro came to be considered an ethnic slur.

    The term is now considered archaic and offensive, and is not commonly used. It is still used in some historical contexts, such as in the name of the United Negro College Fund. and the Negro league in sports.

    Modern language uses: Black, Black African for people native to the African continent, and African American for people in U.S.A..

    "Negro" superseded "colored" as the most polite terminology, at a time when "black" was more offensive.

    The United States Census Bureau announced that Negro would be included on the 2010 United States Census, alongside "Black" and "African-American," because some older Americans still self-identify with the term.

    In English

    Around 1442 the Portuguese first arrived in sub-Saharan Africa while trying to find a sea route to India. The term negro, literally meaning "black", was used by the Spanish and Portuguese as a simple description to refer to people. From the 18th century to the late 1960s, "negro" (later capitalized) was considered the proper English term for all people of sub-Saharan African origin.

    It fell out of favor by the early 1970s in the United States after the Civil Rights movement. However, older African Americans from the period when "Negro" was considered acceptable, initially found the term "Black" more offensive than "Negro". Evidence for the acceptability of "Negro" is in historical African-American organizations and institutions' use of the term—such as the United Negro College Fund. In current English language usage, "Negro" is generally considered acceptable in a historical context, such as baseball's Negro Leagues of the early and mid-20th century, or in the name of older organizations, as in Negro spirituals, the United Negro College Fund or the Journal of Negro Education. The U.S. Census now uses the grouping "Black or African American." In 2010 the U.S. Census added the term "negro" in efforts to include older African Americans. This revival of the term is controversial.


    John Wilson 
    Negro Woman, 1952




    A specifically female form of the word—negress (sometimes capitalized) —was sometimes used; but, like "Jewess", it has all but completely fallen from use. (An exception is its extremely unusual use in the titles of paintings, drawings and sculptures, largely as an allusion to the formerly common occurrence of the word in such titles, but such usage has dropped off dramatically.) Both are considered racist and sexist although, as with other racial, ethnic, and sexual words that are seen as pejorative, some people have tried reclaiming the word, for example artist Kara Walker.

    The related word Negroid was used by 19th and 20th century racial anthropologists. The suffix -oid means "similar to". "Negroid" as a noun was used to designate a wider or more generalized category than "Negro"; as an adjective it qualified a noun as in, for example, "negroid features".

    Art of the Negro

    In other languages

    In Portuguese, negro is an adjective meaning the color black, as in 'black' person. However, preto is the most common antonym of branco (white), while negro can be condescending, since it is a word generally associated with higher registers. In Brazil the word is not considered disrespectful, and is the appropriate manner to refer to black people,[citation needed] though it is often considered impolite to take note of an individual's skin color in any context (which causes the word to be used only in reported speech or in third-person). In Brazil and Portugal negro is the most respectful way to address the African ethnicity, with preto being considered a racial slur.

    In Spain, negro (note that ethnonyms, names of nationalities, etc. are generally not capitalized in Romance languages) means "black person" in colloquial situations, but it can be considered derogatory in other situations (as in English, "black" is often used to mean irregular or undesirable, as in "black market/mercado negro"). However, in Spanish-speaking countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay where there are few people of African origin and appearance, negro (negra for females) is commonly used to refer to partners, close friends or people in general independent of skin color.

    It is similar to the use of the word "nigga" in urban communities in the U.S. For example, one may say to a friend, "Negro ¿Como andas? (Literally, "Hey, black one, how are you doing?") In this case the diminutive negrito is used, as a term of endearment meaning "pal", or "buddy" or "friend." Negrito has come to be used to refer to a person of any ethnicity or color, and also can have a sentimental or romantic connotation similar to "sweetheart," or "dear" in English. (In the Philippines, Negrito was used for a local dark-skinned short person, living in the Negros islands among other places)

    In other Spanish-speaking South American countries, the word negro can also be employed in a roughly equivalent form, though it is not usually considered to be as widespread as in Argentina or Uruguay (except perhaps in a limited regional and/or social context).

    Moreno can be used as a euphemism but it also means just "tanned" or brunette.

    In Haitian Creole the word nèg, derived from the French "nègre", refers to a dark-skinned man; it can also be used for any man, regardless of skin color, roughly like "guy" or "dude" in American English.

    The Dutch "neger" is generally (but not universally) considered as neutral, or at least less negative than "zwarte" (black one).

    In German, Neger used to be considered a neutral term for black people, but gradually fell out of favour from the 1970s. Nowadays it is usually considered a racist slur due to its phonetic similarity to nigger, and only used without racist connotation by members of the pre-baby boomer generation. Otherwise, the term Schwarzer (black person) is preferred or Farbiger (colored person). There is a candy traditionally called Negerkuss (literally "negro kiss"), but the name has come to be used less.

    In Russia the term "негр" (negr) was commonly used in the Soviet period without any negative connotation, and its use continues in this neutral sense. In modern Russian media, the word is used somewhat less frequently - "африканцы" ("Africans") or "афро-американцы"("Afro-Americans") are used instead, depending on the situation), but is still common in oral speech. The word "black" (чёрный) as a noun used as a form of address is pejorative, although it is primarily used with respect to peoples of the Caucasus, natives of Central Asia, and not black people. The word "black" (чёрный) as an adjective is also used in a neutral sense and means the same as "негр" (negr), e.g. "чёрные американцы" (black Americans), "чёрное население" (the black population), etc. Other alternatives to "негр" are темнокожий (temnokozhiy - "dark-skinned"), чернокожий (chernokozhiy - "black-skinned"). These two are used as both nouns and adjectives.

    In Italy negro was used as a neutral term until the end of the 60's. Nowadays the word is considered offensive in some contexts; if used with a clear offensive intention it may be punished by law. Neutral words to define a black or dark-skinned person are nero (arcaism of negro, literally "black") or di colore (colored - or literally 'of color').

    In Swedish neger used to be considered a neutral term for black people, but the term has gradually fallen out of favor through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Today the neutral term to define a black person is svart ("black"). There is a Swedish pastry traditionally called negerboll (literally "negro ball"). Due to its possible offensive character, the name has fallen out of favor in for example new cooking books, though it is still used colloquially.

    In Finnish the word neekeri (negro) was considered a neutral term for black people. Very few — if literally any — black people lived in Finland before the 1960s. In 2002 neekeri's definition was changed from perceived as derogatory by some to generally derogatory in line with ryssä (Ruskie) and hurri (Swedish-speaking Finn) in Kielitoimiston sanakirja. Also, there was a popular Finnish pastry called Neekerinsuukko (lit. "negro's kiss"). The manufacturer changed the name to Brundenbergin suukko ("Brundenberg's kiss") in 2001. Today, neutral terms to define a black person include musta ("black"), tumma (lit. "dark-shaded"), tummaihoinen ("dark-skinned") and mustaihoinen ("black-skinned"). However while the term is no longer used in the media, the majority of the population continue to use it in a neutral fashion.

    In French the positive concept of negritude was developed by the Senegalese politician Léopold Sédar Senghor.

  • Good work my bro. From haj salim ali el
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